Feeding Records of Costa Rican Leaf Beetles (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae)

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FEEDING RECORDS OF COSTA RICAN LEAF BEETLES (COLEOPTERA: CHRYSOMELIDAE)

R. Wills Flowers1 and Daniel H. Janzen2

1Agricultural Research Programs
Florida A&M University
Tallahassee, FL 32307-4100
rflowers@ns1.famu.edu

2Department of Biology
University of Pennsylvania
Philadelphia, PA 19104
djanzen@sas.upenn.edu

Abstract

Host plant associations are given for 137 species representing 7 subfamilies and 92 genera of Costa Rican Chrysomelidae. A numeric score is introduced to objectively describe confidence that a field observation of an interaction between a chrysomelid and a plant represents true herbivory. Literature host plant records, if they exist, are given for included chrysomelid taxa.

Key Words: herbivory, Criocerinae, Chrysomelinae, Cryptocephalinae, Eumolpinae, Galerucinae, Hispinae, Lamprosominae, host plants

Resumen

Se presentan asociaciones de plantas hospederas para 137 especies de Chrysomelidae de Costa Rica, representando 7 subfamilias y 92 géneros de escarabajos. Se introduce una calificación numérica para describir objetivamente la confianza en que una observación de campo de una interacción entre un escarabajo y una planta representa un caso verdadero de herbivoría. Se presentan datos de plantas hospederas de la literatura, si existen, para los taxa de escarabajos incluidos.

In recent years, there has been a surge of interest in relationships between tropical plants and insects. The interest is driven by the related agendas of studying them for their intrinsic scientific interest, and protecting tropical biodiversity through finding practical and non-destructive ways to use it. The latter agenda is exemplified by the biochemical prospecting programs recently started in several areas of the world (Reid et al. 1993).

Most plant-insect research begins with a basic event: an observation that a specific plant is somehow important in the life cycle of a specific insect. Unfortunately, huge sections of the tropical insect fauna are still unusable as subjects of insect-plant research because that first step of linking plant and insect taxa has been largely neglected. In-depth studies of plant-insect interactions have focused on temperate zone insects and on a few relatively well known tropical groups (e.g., Lepidoptera). Only a small percentage of the fauna of tropical herbivores has been similarly studied.

The family Chrysomelidae (Coleoptera), or leaf beetles, is a natural subject for studying plant-insect and inter-herbivore interactions (Strauss 1988). Of the estimated 37,000 species, world-wide, in this family, almost all, as far as we know, are herbivores or seed predators. However, for about 70% of the described species, we do not have records of host plants. Most of the known host plant records are Holarctic (Jolivet 1988b). For Neotropical Chrysomelidae other than Bruchinae, the most specific information treats economically important species (e.g., King & Saunders 1984, Ostmark 1975, Jolivet 1979, Hilje et al. 1991). However, a review of known host plants of the tortoise beetles (Cassidinae) of Panama was recently published by Windsor et al. (1992); Moldenke (1971) listed host plants for some Mexican Chrysomelidae, and Anaya (1989) reviewed the known host plants of North and Central American Chrysomelinae. Jolivet, in a series of papers (1977, 1978, 1982, 1987a, 1987b, 1988a, 1991; Jolivet et al. 1986) and in a recent book (Jolivet & Hawkeswood 1995) summarized current host plant data on a world level for the Chrysomelidae. However, in much of this literature, beetle species are usually identified only to genus and their plant hosts only to family. A few field studies have documented significant attacks by chrysomelids on plants in Central American ecosystems (e.g., Rockwood 1974, Memmott et al. 1993), and some detailed field and laboratory studies have been undertaken for several Neotropical species (Bach 1986, Begossi & Benson 1988, Buzzi & Winder 1986, Hsiao 1988, Strong 1977a,b). Apart from these ecological studies of specific chrysomelids, many of the published host plant records are of dubious value, stating merely that beetle X was taken on plant Y (or, all too often, “genus X feeds on plant genus Y”). A further problem, also noted by Furth (1985), is that a large proportion of such records are buried in taxonomic monographs and regional studies (e.g., Bechyné & Bechyné 1975) and accessible only by reading these studies in their entirety. Much more data on a much broader spectrum of chrysomelid taxa will have to be accumulated and made available before any credible generalizations about the nature of leaf beetle-plant interactions can be made.

In this paper, we present feeding records of adults and larvae for 137 species of Costa Rican Chrysomelidae, representing 7 subfamilies and 92 genera. The majority of these observations were made by the senior author during a six-month sabbatical at Costa Ricaís Instituto Nacional de Biodiversidad (INBio) in 1991, and by the junior author during the years 1978 to 1995 as a byproduct of an on-going intensive study of the caterpillars of the dry forests of Sector Santa Rosa of the Guanacaste Conservation Area (Janzen 1993, Janzen & Gauld 1996). Our records include results from direct observations of free-living feeding, feeding tests, and field associations. We have omitted many records where a single beetle was seen or collected on a plant, except for a few cases where the beetle was seen actively feeding.

Beetles were identified by the senior author (Criocerinae, Cryptocephalinae, Lamprosominae, Eumolpinae) and the following specialists: Catherine N. Duckett (University of Puerto Rico, Alticini), Vilma Savini P. (Universidad Central de Venezuela, Alticini), David G. Furth (U.S. Natural History Museum, Alticini), Shawn M. Clark (West Virginia Department of Agriculture, Galerucini), Charles L. Staines (Maryland Department of Plant Protection, Hispini), and Edward G. Riley (Texas A&M University, Cassidini). Plants were identified by the authors and Quirico Jiménez (INBio), Nelson Zamora (INBio), and Pablo Sanchez (Museo Nacional de Costa Rica).

Our data are organized into a table with three supplementary appendices. Table 1 lists observations by chrysomelid taxon, gives field data in summary form, and lists voucher specimens. Appendix 1 is a key to plant family name abbreviations. Appendix 2 gives the full localities for locality codes used in Table 1. Appendix 3 gives miscellaneous field observations, as well as relevant literature citations for many of the chrysomelid taxa. In Table 1 we have followed the higher classification of Reid (1995) which reduces several well-known subfamilies to tribal status and confirms earlier opinions (eg. Crowson 1955, Lawrence 1982) that Bruchidae, or seed weevils, are a subfamily of Chrysomelidae. Bruchinae are not included in this report; for information on their host associations, see Janzen (1980a), Johnson (1990), and literature citations therein. While not all workers fully agree with all aspects of Reidís classification, it represents the latest and most comprehensive phylogenetic arrangement of the Chrysomelidae. For differing views, see Kingsolver (1995), Verma & Saxena (1996), and Reid (1996).

Explanation of Table 1

Leaf Beetle

Scientific names follow Wilcox (1983) and Flowers (1996). In a few cases, approximate species identifications are indicated by “nr.” before the species name: e.g., Plagiodera nr. uniformis. In some cases only generic identifications were possible, and distinct morphospecies are numbered as such.

Plant

Names follow current usage in the Costa Rica National Herbarium and in the botany department at INBio. In cases where species identification is approximate, the term “cf.” is used (e.g., Solanum cf. torvum).

Plant Family

Classification follows the listings of the Flora of Costa Rica by the Missouri Botanical Garden and INBio, viewable on the World Wide Web at http://cissus.mobot.org/manual.plantas/lista.html. Families are coded by initial letters of their family names. See Appendix 1 for full listing.

Stage

A, adult; L, larva; P, pupa

Locality

See Appendix 2 for full locality data.

Date

Date of initial collection is given in cases where beetles were reared from larvae or held for testing.

Collectors

DHJ&WH: Daniel H. Janzen & Winnie Hallwachs

RWF: R. W. Flowers

Names of other collectors are given as they appear on voucher data labels.

Score

This is an attempt to objectively communicate our level of confidence that an observed association involved actual feeding by the chrysomelid.

6 Chrysomelids were observed in the field actually eating plant material.

5 Chrysomelids fed on plant when confined.

4 10 or more chrysomelids were collected from a plant and feeding damage that could reasonably be attributed to the beetles was present.

3 Five to nine chrysomelids were collected from a plant and feeding damage that could reasonably be attributed to the beetles was present, or 10 or more chrysomelids were collected from a plant but obvious feeding damage attributable to the beetles was not present.

2 Two to four chrysomelids were collected from a plant and feeding damage that could reasonably be attributed to the beetles was present, or five to nine chrysomelids were collected from a plant but obvious feeding damage attributable to the beetles was not present.

1 Two to four chrysomelids were collected from a plant but no noticeable feeding damage was observed.

Number (No.)

Number of vouchered specimens. In general, one feeding record equals one voucher; the few exceptions are mentioned in the Note column.

Voucher

Specimens collected by the senior author have voucher codes in the form “(Collection No.)-RWF(Year)” and are deposited in INBio. Those collected by the junior author have codes in the form “(Year)-SRNP-(Number)” and are nominally specimens of INBio but are on temporary loan to the University of Pennsylvania.

Note

These are numbered consecutively and appear in Appendix 3.

Appendix 2. Localities

Localities cited in Table 1 are listed on an approximate north-south gradient. The first letter of each locality code corresponds to the first letter of its province. Localities in the Area de Conservación Guanacaste also include Lambert Coordinates in parentheses. Lambert Coordinates are used in Costa Rica in preference to latitude-longitude because the 1:50,000 topo sheets are gridded with Lambert Coordinates and, being metric, Lambert positions are easier to use.

Discussion

The data presented in these tables represent only the beginnings of the task of working out host plant relationships for the Central American Chrysomelidae. Our data cover less than 7% of the estimated 2000 chrysomelid species present in Costa Rica alone (Flowers, unpublished data). In some cases, our data confirmed previously published relationships between chrysomelid genera and host plant families (summarized in Jolivet & Hawkeswood 1995); 30 of our records represent host plant family range extensions, and 19 records are for chrysomelid genera in which, apparently, no host plants have been recorded previously.

Most previously published host plant studies for the Neotropical Chrysomelidae (aside from focused studies on specific taxonomic groups, (e.g., Bach 1986; Begossi & Benson 1988; Windsor 1986) make no distinctions between accidental or casual associations of plant and beetle and true host relationships. The dangers in not making these distinctions have been demonstrated to us on several occasions when we found chrysomelid species that move off their food plants for resting or defecating. An example is Omophoeta simulans (Alticini, see Table 1), a group of which was first observed sitting on leaves of a Luehea sapling (Tiliaceae). Although large numbers of beetles were on the Luehea, and their frass was also evident on these leaves, closer inspection revealed that no feeding was taking place on the Luehea and that the true food plant (Evolvulus nummularis; Convolvulaceae) was growing beneath the shrub. Similar warnings about possible confusion of Alticini food plants due to the beetleís mobility have been given by Hawkeswood and Furth (1994). Nevertheless, collection records can still provide useful information-for many taxa opportunistic collecting has provided the only information we have on possible host plants-if their limitations are clearly acknowledged. For our data we have included a “reliability scale” to roughly measure our confidence that a given association represents a true chrysomelid-host plant relationship. While ecological studies of narrow groups of chrysomelids or plants will always provide the most unambiguous data on feeding requirements, recent emphasis on and support for inventory collecting can rapidly increase knowledge of the feeding habits of a broad range of chrysomelids, if observations are qualified in some manner.

We intend to continue expanding on the present work, and we encourage other collectors of Chrysomelidae to record, categorize and publish the plant associations they observe. Rapidly expanding our knowledge of chrysomelid-plant interactions is important for two reasons. On the practical side, knowing host plants for more chrysomelid species will facilitate programs in chemical prospecting which are currently focused on plants. When a family of plants is being surveyed for active chemicals, the insects feeding on those plants represent another level of chemical derivatives available for screening. The phytophagous insect may produce novel chemical varieties which cannot be synthesized directly from the host plant.

A second area where more host plant data are needed is in the testing of hypotheses of the evolution of host plant selection. At present there are two competing theories of what chiefly influences this evolution: phylogenetic and ecological mediation. Phylogenetic mediation (cospeciation) postulates that most cases of herbivory arise from cospeciation or parallel descent. This theory has become a popular explanation of host plant selection, under the name “coevolution” (though we caution the reader that this is not the original meaning of the word, see Janzen 1980b). Phylogenetic mediation has been demonstrated in the Chrysomelidae for Phyllobrotica species (Galerucinae) and their hosts in the Lamiales (Farrell and Mitter 1990). However, their study represents one of the few documented examples of coevolution (Anderson 1993).

The alternative hypothesis is that ecological mediation (colonization and host transfer) is the primary explanation for current host associations. In cases of ecological mediation, phylogenies of herbivores and host plants are not congruent, and host shifts are not necessarily between sister taxa of plants Anderson (1993). In a survey of the Curculioninae (Curculionidae), Anderson (1993) found that in taxa where systematics and plant associations were reasonably well known, evidence for cospeciation of plant and insect taxa is lacking, and ecological mediation appeared to be the rule. However, like the Chrysomelidae, the majority of curculionine taxa lack any host plant data. Until host plants are known for a much larger proportion of phytophagous insect taxa, speculations on the evolution of host plant selection by insects will continue to be based on small subsets of the phytophagous insect universe.

Acknowledgments

We sincerely thank the staffs of the Area de Conservación Guanacaste (ACG), and the Instituto Nacional de Biodiversidad (INBio) for their assistance and many kindnesses during the course of this study. This research was funded in part by a grant (FLAX 91005) from the CSRS, USDA, to Florida A&M University, a National Science Foundation Mid-Career Fellowship (BSR-9003898) to the senior author, and NSF DEB-9400829 to the junior author.

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Appendix 1-Abbreviations of plant family names in Table 1.
ACA
Acanthaceae
CNV
Convolvulaceae
MYR
Myrsinaceae
AMA
Amarantaceae
DIO
Dioscoreaceae
ONA
Onagraceae
APO
Apocynaceae
ERY
Erythroxylaceae
PAS
Passifloraceae
ASC
Asclepiadaceae
ERI
Ericaceae
PIP
Piperaceae
AST
Asteraceae
EUP
Euphorbiaceae
POA
Poaceae
BIG
Bignoniaceae
FAB
Fabaceae:
POL
Polygonaceae
BOR
Boraginacaea
Papilionoidea
RUB
Rubiaceae
BUR
Burseraceae
FLA
Flacourtiaceae
RUT
Rutaceae
CAE
Fabaceae:
HIP
Hippocrateaceae
SPI
Sapindaceae
Caesalpinoidea
LAU
Lauraceae
SPO
Sapotaceae
CAP
Capparidaceae
LOG
Loganiaceae
SIM
Simarubaceae
CLU
Clusiaceae
MLP
Malpighiaceae
SOL
Solanaceae
CEC
Cecropiaceae
MLV
Malvaceae
STE
Sterculiaceae
COC
Cochlospermaceae
MAR
Marantaceae
URT
Urticaceae
COM
Combretacaea
MEL
Melostomataceae
VER
Verbenaceae
CON
Connaraceae
MIM
Fabaceae:
VIT
Vitaceae
Mimosoidea
ZIN
Zingiberaceae

Appendix 2- Localities from Table 1.
G1
Guanacaste Prov., Area de Conservacion Guanacaste, Sector Pitilla, Estacion Pitilla, 8 km S Santa Cecilia, 700 m (N330000, E380400)
G2
Guanacaste Prov., Area de Conservacion Guanacaste, Sector El Hacha, Cerro el Hacha, 10 km SE La Cruz, 300 m (N331700, E365400)
G3
Guanacaste Prov., Area de Conservacion Guanacaste, Area Recreativa Junquillal, 3 km N Cuajiniquil, 0 m (N328000, E351700)
G4
Guanacaste Prov., Area de Conservacion Guanacaste, Sector Orosi, Estacion Maritza, 20 km SE La Cruz (N326500, E372200)
G5
Guanacaste Prov., Area de Conservacion Guanacaste, Estacion Pocosol, 20 km S La Cruz, 250 m (N319000, E361100)
G6
Guanacaste Prov., Area de Conservacion Guanacaste, Sector Orosí, Estacion Maritza, sendero Casa Fran, 21 km SE La Cruz, 600 m (N326000, E373300)
G7
Guanacaste Prov., Area de Conservacion Guanacaste, Estacion Santa Rosa, 28 km NNW Liberia, 250 m (N313700, E359000)
G8
Guanacaste Prov., Area de Conservacion Guanacaste, Sector Santa Rosa, Bosque Humedo, 30 km NNW Liberia, 300 m (N314800, E360500)
G9
Guanacaste Prov., Area de Conservacion Guanacaste, Sector Santa Rosa, Cafetal, 31 km NNW Liberia, 300 m (N315500, E360200)
G10
Guanacaste Prov., Area de Conservacion Guanacaste, Sector Santa Rosa, Bosque San Emilio, 29 km NNW Liberia, 300 m (N313800, E359800)
G11
Guanacaste Prov., Area de Conservacion Guanacaste, Sector Santa Rosa, Sendero Natural, 28 km NNW Liberia, 250 m (N313100, E359900)
G12
Guanacaste Prov., Area de Conservacion Guanacaste, Sector Santa Rosa, Finca Rosa Maria, 26 km NNW Liberia, 250 m (N311000, E359500)
G13
Guanacaste Prov., Area de Conservacion Guanacaste, Sector Santa Rosa, Casona, 28 km NNW Liberia, 250 m (N313000, E359900)
G14
Guanacaste Prov., Area de Conservacion Guanacaste, Sector Santa Rosa, Area Administrativa, 29 km NNW Liberia, 250 m (N313500, E358900)
G15
Guanacaste Prov., Area de Conservacion Guanacaste, Sector Santa Rosa, Cliff Top Light, 31 km NNW Liberia, 300 m (N315200, E360200)
G16
Guanacaste Prov., Area de Conservacion Guanacaste, Sector Santa Rosa, Casetilla Entrada, 33 km NNW Liberia, 300 m (N317800, E362600)
G17
Guanacaste Prov., Area de Conservacion Guanacaste, Sector Santa Rosa, Laguna Escondida, 30 km NNW Liberia, 250 m (N314500, E357900)
G18
Guanacaste Prov., Area de Conservacion Guanacaste, Sector Santa Rosa, Llano Guacimal, 32 km NNW Liberia, 300 m (N317000, E361600)
G19
Guanacaste Prov., Area de Conservacion Guanacaste, Sector Santa Rosa, Canyon del Tigre, 18 km NW Irigaray, 200 m (N310000, E356800)
G20
Guanacaste Prov., Area de Conservacion Guanacaste, Sector Naranjo, Playa Naranjo, 0 m (N307000, E354500)
G21
Guanacaste Prov., Area de Conservacion Guanacaste, Sector Naranjo, Sendero Real, 10 m (N309000, E354000)
G22
Guanacaste Prov., Area de Conservacion Guanacaste, Sector Santa Rosa, Cruz de Piedra, 33 km NNW Liberia, 300 m (N317200, E360900)
G23
Guanacaste Prov., Area de Conservacion Guanacaste, Sector Cacao, EstacionCacao, 9 km N Quebrada Grande, 1000 m (N323100, E375500)
G24
Guanacaste Prov., Area de Conservacion Guanacaste, Sector Santa Rosa, Finca Jenny, 30 km NNW Liberia, 200 m (N316200, E364200)
G25
Guanacaste Prov., Area de Conservation Guanacaste, Sector Santa Rosa,Vado Rio Poza Salada, 17 km NW Irigaray, 10 m (N308900, E355700)
G26
Guanacaste Prov., Area de Conservacion Guanacaste, Sector Santa Rosa, Quebrada Guapote, 27 km NNW Liberia, 200 m (N312700, E361700)
G27
Guanacaste Prov., Area de Conservacion Guanacaste, Sector Santa Rosa, Quebrada Costa Rica, 250 m (N312200, E357500)
G28
Guanacaste Prov., Potrerillos, Rio Tempisque, 23 km NNW Liberia, 100 m (N310900, E367400)
G29
Guanacaste Prov., Finca La Pacifica, 5 km NW Canas.
G30
Guanacaste Prov., 12 km NW of Bebedero, Hacienda Horizontes.
G31
Guanacaste Prov., Bebedero, Ingenio Taboga.
A1
Alajuela Prov., Finca San Gabriel, 2 km SW Dos Ríos, 600 m
A2
Alajuela Prov., Reserva Forestal San Ramon, 900 m
A3
Alajuela Prov., Bijagua, 20 km S Upala, 500 m
A4
Alajuela Prov., Canton La Guacima, Río Segundo, 780 m
A5
Alajuela Prov., Canton Ciruelas, Río Ciruelas, 800 m
H1
Heredia Prov., Estac. Biol. La Selva, 50 m
S1
San José Prov., San Pedro, Univ. Costa Rica
S2
San José Prov., El Rodeo, 1.5 km S Ciudad Colon
C1
Cartago Prov., Pavones, nr. Turrialba
C2
Cartago Prov., Madreselva, nr. Empalme
C3
Cartago Prov., Carretera Interamericana, 7 km S. Cartago
C4
Cartago Prov., Cerro Asunción, paramo vegetation, 3396 m
C5
Cartago Prov., Tapanti, Refugio Vida Silvestre
P1
Puntarenas Prov., Reserva Forestal Monteverde
P2
Puntarenas Prov., Peninsula de Osa, Est. Boscosa, Reserva Forestal Golfo Dulce
P3
Puntarenas Prov., Peninsula de Osa, Cerro de Oro

Appendix 3-Notes to Table 1.

1. These beetles were sitting on heavily eaten leaves, 1.5 m above ground.

2. Additional specimens were observed at time of collection, and C. Chavez reported seeing this species frequently on the same host plant.

3. This species was tested on the host plant. Jolivet (1978) gave Asteraceae, Mimosaceae, Ericaceae and Fagaceae as other host plant families of this genus.

4. This species was found feeding at shoot tips of its host plant.

5. The host plant is an abundant roadside weed on the entrance road in Sector Santa Rosa and elsewhere in this sector. Beetles have been collected both in the rainy and dry seasons. The larvae make cone-shaped cases, apparently utilizing hairs of the hostís leaves. Moldenke (1971) listed both Malvaceae and Convolvulaceae as host plant families for this species.

6. The vouchers were collected from a swarm of this species feeding on the low bush in dense dry forest. The intense feeding and mating activity was similar to that observed in other Clytrinae (Flowers et al. 1994, Moldenke 1971). Jolivet (1978) lists Mimosaceae as the predominant host for this genus.

7. The beetle was seen eating bark of new stems. Monrós (1949) and Jolivet (1978) described bark feeding by other members of this genus.

8. This species was very abundant on the leaves of its host at several regenerating pasture sites in 1991. This cosmopolitan genus has been recorded from Araliaceae from the Palearctic and from Myrtaceae from Puerto Rico (Jolivet 1978).

9. In 1991 this species was very abundant in the pastures and open areas after the onset of the summer rains. Individuals were also collected on other pasture shrubs. The collection of Jan Bechyné in Maracay Venezuela contains several specimens of this species collected in El Salvador and bearing the (apparently) manuscript name “saltator”. The only other host record for this genus is Theobroma cacao L. (Sterculeaceae) for an unidentified species (Jolivet 1987b).

10. Jolivet (1987b) stated that all host observations of the genus Chalcophana have been Asteraceae.

11. Although only one voucher was preserved, numerous adults were observed, and several were tested on the leaves of the plant host. Jolivet (1987b) noted that this genus is both cosmopolitan and polyphagous.

12. Adults were feeding at night on very new expanding leaves of a 1.5 m shoot at base of tree. Jolivet (1987b) stated that the only reliable feeding records for this genus are from Fabaceae.

13. The only host records in the literature for Percolaspis are from Poaceae and Theobroma cacao (Jolivet 1987b).

14. This species has been found feeding on several species of Rubiaceae. Adults are agile leapers when disturbed. Jolivet (1987b) gave a single record for this genus: Persea (Lauraceae) for a Cuban Phanaeta.

15. Adults of this genus were found on new foliage and in some years defoliated their hosts.

16. This species was very common feeding on various species of Melastomataceae. Jolivet (1987b) described Typophorus as polyphagous but does not list any Melastomataceae among its host plants.

17. The voucher is one of many collected, seen and reared at Estación Pitilla and San Gabriel on various species of Solanum.

18. Larvae skeletonize host plant leaves. This species extensively defoliates its host during some years. Literature records for New World Plagiodera are limited to Salix, Populus (Salicaceae), Croton (Euphorbiaceae), and Lueha (Tiliaceae); however, species in the Philippines and India have been reported on Xylosoma and Flacourtia (Flacourtiaceae) (Jolivet & Hawkeswood 1995).

19. This is the most commonly collected of the Costa Rican species of Platyphora. During one feeding test, two very small larvae were observed in the plastic bag which up till then held a single female, suggesting that Platyphora bicolor is viviparous. Schroder et al. (1994) described the biology of the viviparous Platyphora quadrisignata (Germar) from southern Brazil.

20. Adults and larvae were frequently found feeding on host plant throughout the 1991 rainy season. Apparently, our observations represent the only known host plant data for Stilodes.

21. A group was followed from egg to adult. Larvae feed and rest on underside of leaves. Pupation takes place in leaf litter.

22. Larvae are sooty black, covered with branched hair-like projections, and with red heads. Pupae are yellow. This chrysomelid was parasitized by Myopharous (Tachinidae: Diptera).

23. In 1991 this beetle caused a major defoliation of its host plant, a pioneer species in cleared pastures.

24. The host plant of this galerucine was found growing along the edge of a small patch of forest.

25. The host plant was a low understory tree in tropical dry forest.

26. This galerucine was seen on several occasions feeding on young leaves of its host plant. This genus has been recorded from Acacia (Fabaceae) in the USA (Jolivet 1987a).

27. A large group of these Masurius (which may represent more than one species) was found feeding on the two host plants growing within a few yards or each other along a trail in montane forest.

28. This and the following species were reared to adult.

29. In addition to the voucher specimens, other specimens were collected two years earlier on the same host plant.

30. RWF has observed adults of this species every year since 1989 defoliating basal shoots of a tree growing in front of the main administration building at the University of Costa Rica. Jolivet (1987a) listed Cordia and Lantana (Verbenaceae) as hosts of this genus.

31. RWF observed on individual at night eating a hole in the middle of a leaf of the Ipomoea host plant.

32. In both cases, beetles were observed feeding on the host plant. Jolivet (1991) listed Labiaceae and Verbenaceae as probable hosts for this genus and noted other citations of Lauraceae, Buddlejaceae, Asteraceae, Umbelliferae, Sterculiaceae, and Fabaceae.

33. In addition to the vouchered specimen from Byrsonima crassifolia, this species was abundant on this host plant at Estacion Maritza (G4) in 1991.

34. Unlike many other chrysomelids which were found associated only with young foliage, A. salvadorense was found actively feeding late in the rainy season on older leaves.

35. A large group of these beetles was found on a broken stalk of the host plant, feeding on sap and milky latex. The host plant was growing in the shaded understory of montane forest.

36. Adults were reared from larvae feeding on the host plant.

37. Jolivet (1991) listed Samanea (Fabaceae/pap.) as a host of this genus.

38. Jolivet (1991) cited Theobroma and Tecoma (Bignoniaceae) as other known host plants of this alticine genus.

39. Both this and the following host plant were growing close together in a mixed stand next to a road.

40. The host plant, growing in a wet depression in a cleared area, sustained heavy feeding damage from this alticine in 1991. Jolivet (1991) listed Cleome, Solanum, Beta (Chenopodiaceae), Labiaceae, Cordia, and Adiantum (Adiantaceae) as host plants of Leptophysa.

41. These beetles were swept from a tree that showed heavy feeding damage to the leaves. No active feeding was observed, but this collection was made during an abnormal dry spell during what was supposed to be the wet season.

42. This Longitarsus is a flightless species.

43. Field observations by DHJ indicate that the adult appears on the host plant to oviposit; larvae are free living and cut islands out of leaf margin.

44. The host plant is a small prostrate weed. The beetles were first observed resting and defecating on a shrub of Luehea (Tiliaceae) which grew over the Evolvulus. When no feeding damage on the Luehea was seen, despite the beetle activity, a wider search revealed the true host plant.

45. These small pinkish-orange flea beetles were observed feeding on newly expanding leaves (which are also reddish to pinkish orange) of their ericaceous hosts.

46. This alticine was collected abundantly from a very dense stand of its host plant. In 1994 it was found equally abundantly in the same stand of plants.

47. RWF has observed this species over several years, actively feeding on Euphorbiaceae even during the dry season in quite arid habitats.

48. These represent five different morphospecies of Syphrea collected on various plants.

49. This species feeds by scraping pits in the expanding leaves of this host plant. The following plant record may be an alternate dry season food source.

50. Huge numbers of this species were found defoliating the host plant during the voucher year. In 1991, on the other hand, no specimens were found and no damage to the host was apparent. This is the species called Oedionychis sp. in Rockwood (1974). Bechyné (1955) restricted the definition of true Oedionychis to a small group of flightless Mediterranean flea beetles. New World species formerly in Oedionychis are now placed in Walterianella, Alagoasa and other genera.

51. Jolivet (1991) listed Venezuelan records of Gardinia (Rubiaceae) and Tabebuia (Bignoniaceae) for this genus.

52. The genus Cephaloleia is well known from various species of Heliconia and other Zingiberales (Strong 1977a,b). This species was regularly encountered in rolled-up terminal leaves of Costus at this and other localities.

53. This hispine was very abundant in a dense stand of grass growing on a river sand bar.

54. A large number of these hispines were feeding on and heavily damaging leaves of a shrub of its host growing along the bank of a river in deep shade.

55. These cassids have black larvae with long black caudal brushes; the pupae have a creamy white thorax. Adults were reared.

56. Windsor et al. (1992) gave Ipomoea lindenii Mart. & Gal. as host plant for true C. egregia.

57. This species periodically defoliates its host.

58. Feeding on young leaves of Alibertia was seen; some feeding damage was also seen on the two bignoniaceous plants as well.

59. The cassid caused a major defoliation in 1979, but has been rare since. The 1991 record was from a single tree growing by the seashore and heavily damaged by a group of the cassids. Jolivet (1988a) also listed Tabebuia and other Bignoniaceae as hosts for this genus.

60. These records are of beetles aestivating in the dry season; see Flowers (1991) for more details on this behavior. Windsor et al. (1992) listed several species of Cordia as the true host plants of this species.

61. The host plant was an understory plant in a pine plantation. Jolivet (1988a) also listed Hyptis (Labiaceae) as a host plant for this genus.

62. The record from Bursera simaruba is for beetles hiding under bark plates during the dry season. Jolivet (1988a) listed Phaseolus (Fabaceae) and Passiflora (Passifloraceae) for this genus.

63. In 1991 this species was common during the rainy season. A colony at the Administration Area in Sector Santa Rosa (G14) was followed for several months, during which time predatory pentatomids were observed resting on foliage above the cassids, and occasionally descending to feed on them.

64. Windsor et al. (1992) listed Cordia spinescens for a P. nr. alutacea from Panama.

65. Windsor et al. (1992) also list Solanum seaforthianum Andr. and Physalis cordata Mill (Solanaceae).

Table 1. Feeding records of Costa Rican leaf beetles. See text for explanation of columns.
Leaf Beetle
Plant
Plant Family
Stage
Locality
Date
Collectors
Score
No.
Voucher
Note
CRIOCERINAE
Lema nr. atricornis Chev.
Dioscorea convolvulaceae Schltdl. & Cham.
DIO
A,L
G11
3/VII/1983
DHJ&WH
3
10
83-SRNP-707
1
Lema subapicalis (Baly)
Dioscorea sp.
DIO
A
G2
20/VIII/1991
RWF, R. Elizondo
1
3
80-RWF91
Lema sp.
Dioscorea sp.
DIO
A
G2
28/V/1991
RWF, R. Elizondo, L. Rose
1
4
116-RWF91
Metopoceris gemmans (Jac.)
Solanum argentium Duval ex. Poiret
SOL
A
G23
15/VIII/1991
RWF,
C. Chavez
6
2
50-RWF91
2
CRYPTOCEPHALINAE s.s.
Griburius albilabris Suffrian
Semialarium mexicanum (Miers) Mennega
HIP
A
G10
25/V/1991
RWF
5
3
22-RWF91
3
CRYPTOCEPHALINAE: CHLAMISINI
Chlamisius insignis Jac.
Byrsonima crassifolia (L.) Kunth
MLP
A
G14
25/VI/1980
DHJ&WH
6
1
80-SRNP-239
4
Pseudochlamys nr. megalostomoides Lac.
Waltheria indica L.
STE
A
G7
25/II/1990
RWF
6
3
9-RWF94
5
CRYPTOCEPHALINAE: CLYTRINI
Babia parvula Jac.
Thouinidium dicandrum (Humb.&Bonpl.) Radlk.
SPI
A
G19
12/V/1991
RWF
6
11
67-RWF91
6
LAMPROSOMINAE
Lamprosoma sp.
Byrsonima crassifolia
MLP
A
G7
15/V/1978
DHJ&WH
6
2
78-SRNP-3.1
7
Oomorphus godmani Jac.
Cochlospermum vitifolium (Willd.) Spreng
COC
A
G2
20/VIII/1991
RWF, R. Elizondo
6
13
74-RWF91
8
EUMOLPINAE
Antitypona sp.
Gliricidia sepium (Jacq.)
FAB
A
G17
29/V/1991
RWF
2
6
105-RWF91
9
Chalcophana discolor Jac.
Piper auritum Kunth
PIP
A
G23
15/VIII/1991
RWF, C. Chavez
2
6
81-RWF91
10
Piper sp.
PIP
A
G1
17/V/1991
RWF
1
2
73-RWF91
Chalcophana mutabilis Har.
Eupatorium albicaule DHJ
AST
A
G8
05/VII/1982
DHJ&WH
1
2
82-SRNP-471
Chalcophana nr. cincta Har.
Vernonia sp.
AST
A
G1
18/V/1991
RWF
1
4
16-RWF91

Critonia cf. moriflora (Miller) R. M. King & H. Rob.
AST
A
C1
5/IX/1991
RWF, D. Coto, J. Saunders
1
2
48-RWF91
Colaspis nr. hypochlora Lef.
unident. sp.
MLP
A
G5
11/VI/1991
RWF
6
2
101-RWF91
Cissus rhombifolia Vahl.
VIT
A
G14
12/VI/1989
DHJ&WH
6
1
89-SRNP-182
Colaspis impressa Lef.
Cissus pseudosicyoides Croat
VIT
A
G19
12/VI/1991
RWF, R. Tiffer
4
4
96-RWF91
Cissus pseudosicyoides
VIT
A
G14
12/VI/1980
DHJ&WH
4
1
80-SRNP-107
Cissus rhombifolia
VIT
A
G10
05/VII/1980
DHJ&WH
6
1
80-SRNP-331
Colaspis inconstans Lef.
Salmea scandens (L.) DC.
AST
A
P3
14/V/1995
RWF
4
13
6-RWF95
Colaspis melancholica Jac.
Sarcostemma bilobum Hook.&Arn.
ASC
A
G14
22/VI/1980
DHJ&WH
6
1
80-SRNP-190
Blepharodon mucronatum (Schltdl.) Decne
ASC
A
G22
02/VII/1991
DHJ&WH
6
5
91-SRNP-1351
Colaspoides unicolor Jac.
Ardisia sp.
MYR
A
G1
18/V/1991
RWF
5
1
27-RWF91
11
Deuteronoda suturalis (Lef.)
Cassia biflora L.
CAE
A
G17
29/V/1991
RWF
2
5
103-RWF91
Cassia reticulata Willd.
CAE
A
H1
22/I/1989
RWF
6
5
22-RWF94
Eumolpus robustus Horn
Gonolobus sp.
ASC
A
G23
17/VIII/1991
C. Chavez, RWF
6
2
63-RWF91
Sarcostemma bilobum
ASC
A
G14
22/VI/1980 2/VII/1980
DHJ&WH
6
1
1
80-SRNP-191 80-SRNP-290
Sarcostemma glaucum H.B.K.
ASC
A
G10
30/V/1981
DHJ&WH
6
2
81-SRNP-49
Megascelis sp.
Swartzia cubensis (Britt.&Wils.) Standl.
CAE
A
G11
23/VI/1989
DHJ&WH
6
4
89-SRNP-288
12
Metachroma nr. clarkei Blake
Avicennia germinans (L.) L.
VER
A
G21
20/V/1991
RWF
2
5
111-RWF91
Conocarpus erecta L.
COM
A
G21
20/V/1991
RWF
1
3
112-RWF91
Percolaspis nr. hypoxantha (Lef.)
Coccoloba liportizii Gómez-Laur. &N. Zamora
POL
A
A2
8/III/1990
RWF
3
5
20-RWF94
13
Percolaspis sculpta (Jac.)
Pithecellobium longifolium (Humb. &Bonpl.) Standl.
MIM
A
G29
17/II/1989
RWF, M. Gonzalez, T. Aguilar
6
4
19-RWF94
Pithecellobium longifolium
MIM
A4
18/II/1994
RWF, Y. Astorga, J. Solis
6
5
15-RWF94
Inga vera Willd.
MIM
A
G8
22/IV/1983
DHJ&WH
6
1
83-SRNP-104
Phanaeta ruficollis Lef.
Gonzalagunia bracteosa (Donn. Smith) Robinson
RUB
A
G1
15/V/1991
RWF
3
5
15-RWF91
14
Ladenbergia sericophylla Standley
RUB
A
G1
15/V/1991
RWF
2
4
8-RWF91
Sabacea villosa Roem. & Schult.
RUB
A
H1
22/I/1989
RWF
4
11
21-RWF94
Phanaeta sp. 1
Rondeletia buddleoides Benth.
RUB
A
G4
8/V/1991
RWF
3
5
17-RWF91
Phanaeta sp. 2
Sommera donnell-smithii Standl.
RUB
A
C1
5/IX/1991
RWF, D. Coto, J. Saunders
1
3
43-RWF91
Rhabdopterus sp. 1
Ocotea veraguensis (Meissn.) Mez.
LAU
A
G8
2/VII/1982
DHJ&WH
6
10
82-SRNP-426
15
Rhabdopterus sp 2 &3
Manilkara chicle (L.) van Royan
SPO
A
G10
31/VII/1983
DHJ&WH
6
4
83-SRNP-908
Typophorus variabilis Jac.
unident. sp.
MEL
A
C2
5/II/1994
RWF, M. Chavarría, H. Weiler
4
13
3-RWF94
16
Typophorus sp. 1
Conostygia xalapensis (Bonpl.) D.Don
MEL
A
G1
12/V/1991
RWF
2
4
5-RWF91
Typophorus sp. 3
Ipomoea pes-capra (L.) R. Br.
CNV
A
G20
12/V/1991
RWF, R. Tiffer
2
3
65-RWF91
CHRYSOMELINAE
Calligrapha argus StŒl
Guazuma ulmifolia Lam.
STE
A
G10
25/V/1991
RWF
6
2
113-RWF91
Guazuma ulmifolia
STE
L, A
G14
16/V/1979
27/VI/1980
DHJ&WH
6
6
1
1
79-SRNP-14
80-SRNP-251
Byttneria aculeata (Jacq.) Jacq.
STE
A
G11
30/V/1981
DHJ&WH
6
2
81-SRNP-50
Calligrapha fulvipes StŒl
Sida rhombifolia L.
MLV
A
S2
24/VI/1991
RWF, J. Corrales, A. Solís
6
8
89-RWF91
Calligrapha serpentina (Rogers)
Ayenia micrantha Standl.
STE
L, A
G9
2/VII/1983
DHJ&WH
6
6
83-SRNP-691
Leptinotarsa undecimlineata StŒl
Solanum ochraceoferrugineum (Dun.) Fern.
SOL
L, A
G1
16/V/1991
RWF
6
1
16-RWF94
17
Plagiodera cerea atritarsis StŒl
Prockia crucis L.
FLA
P, A
G10
6/VI/1980
14/VI/198
DHJ&WH
6
6
2
7
80-SRNP-69
82-SRNP-225
18
Prockia crucis
FLA
L, A
G9
2/VII/1983
DHJ&WH
6
1
83-SRNP-698
Prockia crucis
FLA
L, A
G26
20/VI/1980
DHJ&WH
6
1
80-SRNP-165
Plagiodera nr. uniformis Jac.
Xylosoma flexuosum (HBK) Hemsley
FLA
L, A
G15
15/VI/1983
DHJ&WH
6
9
83-SRNP-428
Plagiodera sp.
Xylosoma horrida Rose
FLA
L, A
G15
30/V/1991
DHJ&WH
6
12
91-SRNP-538
Platyphora bicolor Jac.
Koanophyllon pittieri (Klatt) R. M. & H. Robinson
AST
A
G23
16/VIII/1991
RWF
6
5
41-RWF91
19
Platyphora petulans StŒl
Mesechites trifida (Jacq.) Müll. Arg.
APO
A
G8
24/VI/1983
DHJ&WH
6
1
83-SRNP-564
Prestonia allenii Woodson
APO
A
G8
9/VII/1982
3/XII/1983
13/XII/1983
DHJ&WH
6
1
1
1
82-SRNP-533
83-SRNP-1398
83-SRNP-1453
Prestonia allenii
APO
A
G10
7/VII/1989
DHJ&WH
1
2
89-SRNP-560
Stilodes modesta Jac.
Banisteriopsis muricata (Cav.) Cuatr.
MLP
L, A
G7
20/VI/1978
DHJ&WH
6
3
78-SRNP-83
20
Banisteriopsis muricata
MLP
L, A
G14
2/VII/1980
DHJ&WH
6
2
80-SRNP-292
Banisteriopsis muricata
MLP
L, A
G4
12/V/1991
RWF
6
5
31-RWF91
Stilodes neptis StŒl
Hiraea reclinata Jacq.
MLP
A
G8
14/VI/1984
DHJ&WH
6
2
84-SRNP-557
Hiraea reclinata
MLP
A
G27
4/VII/1983
DHJ&WH
6
3
83-SRNP-732
Hiraea reclinata
MLP
L, A
G11
16/VI/1989
DHJ&WH
6
18
89-SRNP-213
21
Hiraea reclinata
MLP
A
G17
16/VI/1991
RWF
6
1
115-RWF91
22
GALERUCINAE: s.s.
Biblitea jansoni (Jac.)
Witheringia sp.
SOL
A
G23
20/III/1990
RWF
3
10
17-RWF94
Caraguata pallida (Jac.)
Vismia baccifera (L.) Tr.& Pl.
CLU
L, A
G1
17/VI/1991
RWF
6
19
40-RWF91
23
Coelomera sp.
Cecropia peltata L.
CEC
A
G10
31/VII/1983
DHJ&WH
6
2
83-SRNP-903
Isotes sp.
Iresine diffusa Kunth.
AMA
A
A1
23/V/1991
RWF
4
9
19-RWF91
24
Luperosoma vittatum Jac.
Lonchocarpus acuminatus (Schecht.) Sousa
FAB
A
G19
12/VI/1991
RWF
3
6
97-RWF91
25
Malacorhinus decempunctatus Jac.
Pithecellobium palmanum Standl.
MIM
A
G4
9/V/1991
RWF
6
2
1-RWF94
26
Pithicellobium longifolium
MIM
A
A4
18/II/1994
RWF
6
2
4-RWF94
Masurius spp.
Croton sp.
EUP
A
G23
15/VIII/1991
RWF
4
11
61-RWF91
27
Solanum acerosum Sendt.
SOL
A
G23
16/VIII/1991
RWF
4
14
70-RWF91
Monolepta sp.
Rourea glabra Kunth.
CON
A
G8
9/VII/1982
DHJ&WH
6
15
82-SRNP-512
Nestinus viridis Jac.
Zanthoxylum setulosum P. Wilson
RUT
L
L, A
A
G14
13/VI/1982
14/VII/1983
19/XII/1983
DHJ&WH
6
1
1
2
82-SRNP-221
83-SRNP-802
83-SRNP-1479
28
Nestinus n. sp.
Essenbeckia littoralis Donn. Smith
RUT
L, A
G16
18/VI/1983
DHJ&WH
6
1
83-SRNP-454
Paranapiacaba rufofasciata (Jac.)
Coutarea hexandra (Jacq.)
RUB
A
G2
20/VIII/1991
RWF
4
2
54-RWF91
29
Yingaresca sp.
Cordia eriostigma Pittier
BOR
A
S1
14/II/1990
RWF
6
25
18-RWF94
30
GALERUCINAE: ALTICINI
Alagoasa seriata (Jac.)
Lantana camara L.
VER
A
G14
28/VI/1995
DHJ&WH
6
1
93-SRNP-2995
Asphaera nobilitata (Fabr.)
Ipomoea sp.
CNV
A
P3
10/V/1995
RWF
6
1
7-RWF95
31
Asphaera reichei Har.
Vernonia patens H.B.K.
AST
A
G1
16/V/1991
RWF
6
2
4-RWF91
32
Ayalaia minor Bech. &Bech.
Byrsonima crassifolia
MLP
A
G17
19/V/1991
RWF
6
1
76-RWF91
33
Banisteriopsis sp.
MLP
A
G2
28/V/1991
RWF, R. Elizondo, L. Rose
1
4
88-RWF91
Ayalaia salvadorense Bech. &Bech.
Erythroxylum havanense Jacq.
ERY
A
G19
12/V/1991
RWF
6
14
68-RWF91
34
Erythroxylum havanense
ERY
A
G11
12/VIII/1991
RWF
6
6
84-RWF91
Erythroxylum havanense
ERY
A
G9
23/VI/1992
DHJ&WH
6
8
92-SRNP-2424
Centralaphthona nr. lessmanni Bech.&Bech.
Euphorbia elata Brand
EUP
A
G23
14/VIII/1991
RWF, C. Chavez
6
28
72-RWF91
35
Euphorbia elata
EUP
A
G23
4/V/1995
RWF, E. Ulate
6
19
8-RWF95
Chaetocnema sp.
Pavonia sp.
MLV
A
G1
17/V/1991
RWF
2
5
45-RWF91
Diphaltica sp. 1
Cestrum racemonsum R.&P.
SOL
A
A1
21/V/1991
RWF
3
4
37-RWF91
Diphaltica sp. 2
Solanum cf. arboreum Humb. & Bonpl. ex Duval
SOL
A
C3
5/II/1994
RWF, M. Chavarría, H. Weiler
4
5
5-RWF94
Diphaulaca aulica (Ol.)
Coursetia elliptica M. Sousa & Rudd
FAB
A
G11
12/VIII/1991
RWF
4
17
85-RWF91
Desmodium sp
FAB
A
G2
24/VIII/1991
RWF
3
5
59-RWF91
Disonycha quinquelineata (Lat.)
Passiflora pulchella Kunth
PAS
A
G9
27/VII/1992
DHJ&WH
6
8
92-SRNP-4026
Disonycha trifasciata Clark
Byttneria aculeata
STE
L
G9
21/XI/1987
DHJ&WH
6
2
87-SRNP-1343
36
Byttneria aculeata
STE
A
G11
11/VIII/1995
DHJ&WH
6
1
95-SRNP-7848
Byttneria aculeata
STE
A
H1
11/I/1995
RWF
6
12
1-RWF95
Epitrix sp. 1
Solanum cf. torvum Sw.
SOL
A
A2
12/III/1990
RWF
3
26
11-RWF94
Epitrix sp. 2
Quassia amara L.
SIM
A
G2
6/V/1991
RWF, T. de la Rosa
2
8
18-RWF91
Genaphthona transversicollis (Jac.)
Inga sapindioides Willd.
MIM
A
A2
12/III/1990
RWF
2
7
13-RWF94
Gioia sp.
Palicourea salicifolia Standl.
RUB
A
C2
5/II/1994
RWF, M. Chavarría, H. Weiler
3
9
4 RWF 94
Glenidion nr. haagi Har.
Inga sapindioides
MIM
A
A2
12/III/1990
RWF
1
2
12-RWF94
37
Heikertingerella sp. 1
Buddleja nitida Benth.
LOG
A
C4
6/VIII/1991
RWF, L. M. & T. A. Ketchem
4
25
94-RWF91
Heikertingerella sp. 2
Lantana camara
VER
A
P2
15/IX/1991
RWF, R. Aguilar
2
7
109-RWF91
38
Hydmosyne sp.
Brugmansia candida Pers.
SOL
A
A1
14/VI/1991
RWF
3
6
56-RWF91
39
Lycianthes multiflora Bitt.
SOL
A
A1
23/V/1991
RWF
3
6
38-RWF91
Witheringia sp.
SOL
A
P3
14/V/1995
RWF
2
1
5-RWF95
Hypolampsis sp. 1
Capparis frondosa Jac.
CAP
A
G1
12/V/1991
RWF
1
2
28-RWF91
Leptophysa nr.bordoni Bech. & Bech.
Cleome parviflora Kunth
CAP
A
G1
13/V/1991
RWF
4
25
95-RWF91
40
Leptophysa nr. littoralis Bech. & Bech.
Capparis odoratissima Jacq.
CAP
A
G21
23/VIII/1994
RWF
2
11
26-RWF94
41
Longitarsus sp. 1
Tournefortia glabra L.
BOR
A
G4
09/V/1991
RWF
2
6
11-RWF91
Longitarsus sp. 2
Ageratina sp.
AST
A
C4
6/VIII/1991
RWF, L. M. & T. A. Ketchem
2
6
92-RWF91
42
Senecio andicola Turcz.
AST
A
C4
6/VIII/1991
RWF, L. M. & T. A. Ketchem
3
12
93-RWF91
Lupraea violacea Jac.
Urcra caracasana (Jacq.) Griseb.
URT
A
P1
17/II/1990
RWF
4
15
14-RWF94
Lupraea nr. violacea
Clibadium sp.
AST
A
A2
25/III/1996
RWF
6
6
1-RWF96
Lupraea sp.
Hypericum irazuense Kuntze
CLU
A
C4
6/VIII/1991
RWF, L. M. &. T. A. Ketchem
2
7
91-RWF91
Lysathia sp.
Ludwigia erecta (L.) Hara
ONA
A
G28
19/VIII/1991
RWF
4
15
52-RWF91
Ludwigia erecta
ONA
A
P2
15/IX/1991
RWF, R. Aguilar
4
17
110-RWF91
Margaridisa sp. 1
Conostegia xalapensis
MEL
A
G1
12/V/1991
RWF
3
25
5-RWF91
Margaridisa sp. 2
Miconia schlimii Triana
MEL
A
P2
14/IX/1991
RWF
2
4
107-RWF91
Margaridisa sp. 4
Witheringia sp.
SOL
A
G1
14/V/1991
RWF
2
4
3-RWF91
Megistops nr. costaricensis Blake
Tabebuia ochracea (Cham.) Standl.
BIG
A
G14
21/VIII/1995
DHJ&WH
6
3
95-SRNP-8293
Tabebuia ochracea
BIG
A
G10
22/VIII/1995
DHJ&WH
6
5
95-SRNP-8473
Monomacra violacea (Jac.)
Passiflora biflora Lam.
PAS
A
P2
15/IX/1991
RWF, R. Aguilar
1
2
108-RWF91
Nasigona pallida Jac.
Gonzalagunia rosea
RUB
A
P3
14/V/1995
RWF
4
2
4-RWF95
Notozona nicaraguensis Jac.
Bursera simaruba (L.) Sarg.
BUR
A
G16
18/VI/1983
DHJ&WH
6
1
83-SRNP-455
43
Bursera simaruba
BUR
L, A
G13
15/VI/1985
DHJ&WH
6
3
85-SRNP-401
Omophoeta simulans Jac.
Evolvulus nummularis (L.) L.
CNV
A
G14
21/VII/1994
RWF
6
5
27-RWF94
44
Paralactica sp.
Passiflora sp.
PAS
A
G23
14/VIII/1991
RWF
3
1
60-RWF91
Parasyphraea sp. 1
Inga sp.
MIM
A
G1
17/V/1991
RWF
2
2
44-RWF91
Parasyphraea sp. 2
Cavendishia bracteata (Ruis & Pav. ex J. St.-Hil.) Hoerold
ERI
A
C3
5/II/1994
RWF, M. Chavarría, H. Weiler
4
10
6-RWF94
45
Cavendishia sp.
ERI
A
C5
5/II/1994
RWF, M. Chavarría, H. Weiler
6
14
2-RWF94
Phenrica nr. austriaca (Schauf.)
Byttneria aculeata
STE
A
G11
11/VIII/1995
DHJ&WH
6
2
95-SRNP-7846
Platyprosopus pallens (Fab.)
Canavalia brasilensis Mart. ex Brent.
FAB
A
G13
18/VI/1991
RWF
4
7
39-RWF91
Plectotetra nr. clarki Baly
Lippia torresii Standl.
VER
A
A1
18/VIII/1991
RWF
2
9
55-RWF91
Ptocadica nr. straminea Har.
Passiflora sp.
PAS
A
G23
14/VIII/1991
RWF
3
3
60-RWF91
Resistenciana obscura (Jac.)
Exostema caribaeum (Jacq.) Roem & Schult
RUB
A
G2
24/VIII/1991
RWF
1
2
53-RWF91
Resistenciana panamensis (Jac.)
Xylosoma sp.
FLA
A
G23
16/VIII/1991
RWF
2
5
114-RWF91
Xylosoma sp.
FLA
A
G23
4/V/1995
RWF, E. Ulate
6
4
9-RWF95
Strabala acuminata costaricensis Blake
Spermacoce sp.
RUB
A
A3
26/VII/1994
RWF
5
1
24-RWF94
Syphrea bibiana Bech.
Mimosa pigra L.
MIM
A
G17
25/V/1991
RWF
4
33
64-RWF91
46
Mimosa pigra
MIM
A
G17
22/VII/1994
RWF
4
52
23-RWF94
Syphrea parvula Jac.
Bernardia nicaraguensis Standl.
EUP
A
G11
12/VIII/1991
RWF
6
2
83-RWF91
47
Dalechampia sp.
EUP
A
G8
21/V/1991
RWF
4
7
86-RWF91
Syphrea spp.
Pavonia sp.
MLV
A
G1
17/V/1991
RWF
1
2
45-RWF91
48
Dalechampia heteromorpha Pax & K. Hoffm.
EUP
A
G1
18/V/1991
RWF
2
6
25-RWF91
Caperonia palustris (L.) A. St.-Hil.
EUP
A
G31
30/I/1994
RWF
3
16
1-RWF 94
Caperonia palustris
EUP
A
G20
13/VIII/1991
RWF, R. Tiffer
4
7
49-RWF91
Acalypha apodanthes Standl. & L. O.Williams
EUP
A
G4
10/V/1991
RWF
4
8
7-RWF91
Byttneria aculeata
STE
A
H1
11/I/95
RWF
6
14
1-RWF95
Systena sulphurea Jac.
Serjania schiedeana Schltdl.
SPI
A
G11
5/VII/1980
DHJ&WH
6
1
80-SRNP-340
49
Cassia biflora
CAE
A
G17
29/I/1989
RWF
1
2
10-RWF94
Walterianella humeralis (Fab.)
Lindenia rivalis Benth.
RUB
A
G2
24/VIII/1991
RWF, R. Elizondo, L. Rose
2
4
87-RWF91
Walterianella tenuicinta (Jac.)
unident sp.
ACA
A
G2
20/VIII/1991
RWF
2
4
51-RWF91
Walterianella venustula (Schauf.)
Crescentia alata H.B.K.
BIG
A
G18
11/VIII/1989
DHJ&WH
6
6
89-SRNP-863
50
Walterianella sp.
Lindenia rivalis
RUB
A
G2
28/V/1991
24/VIII/1991
RWF, R. Elizondo, L. Rose
3
11
87-RWF91
51
HISPINAE: s.s.
Cephaloleia suturalis Baly
Costus sp.
ZIN
A
A1
14/VI/1991
RWF
4
1
79-RWF91
52
Chalepus bellula (Chapuis)
Poaceae
POA
A
G30
29/I/1994
RWF
4
26
7-RWF94
53
Carinispa nevermanni Uh.
Bunchosia sp.
MLP
L
G23
5/III/1991
DHJ&WH
6
1
91-SRNP-74
Malpighia glabra L.
MLP
A
A5
18/II/1994
RWF, Y. Astorga, J. Solis
4
14
8-RWF94
54
Demotispa strandi Uh.
Spermacoce sp.
RUB
A
A3
26/VII/1994
RWF
5
1
25-RWF94
Oxychalepus alienus (Baly)
Centrosema macrocarpum Benth.
MIM
A
G9
24/V/1991
RWF
3
6
21-RWF91
Sumitrosis sp.
Guazuma ulmifolia
STE
A
G2
6/V/1991
RWF
1
2
12&13-RWF91
Uroplata varicostata Pic
Byrsonima crassifolia
MLP
A
G22
27/I/1992
DHJ&WH
6
1
92-SRNP-294
Xenochalepus omogera (Crotch)
Centrosema macrocarpum
FAB
L
G17
20/VII/1992
DHJ&WH
6
3
92-SRNP-3595
HISPINAE: CASSIDINI
Akantaka insidiosa Boh.
Tabebuia ochracea
BIG
A
G10
5/VI/1982
DHJ&WH
6
1
82-SRNP-169
55
Tabebuia ochracea
BIG
L, A
G9
30/VI/1989
DHJ&WH
6
2
89-SRNP-448
Tabebuia ochracea
BIG
L, A
G24
16/VII/1989
DHJ&WH
6
2
89-SRNP-701
Tabebuia rosea (Vertol.) DC.
BIG
A
G10
27/III/1984
DHJ&WH
6
3
84-SRNP-42
Aslamidium sp.
Calathea crotalifera S. Watson
MAR
A
G23
14/VIII/1991
RWF
4
4
75-RWF91
Charidotella nr. egregia (Boh.)
Ipomoea sp.
CNV
A
G8
10/VI/1989
DHJ&WH
6
2
89-SRNP-162
56
Ipomoea sp.
CNV
L
G8
25/VII/1995
DHY&WH
6
1
95-SRNP-7192
Charidotis costaricea Spaeth
Guettarda macrosperma Donn. Smith
RUB
A
G15
13/VIII/1982
DHJ&WH
6
1
82-SRNP-721
57
Chelymorpha sp.
Ipomoea trifida (Kunth) G. Don
CNV
L, A
G17
18/I/1989
DHJ&WH
6
6
89-SRNP-11
Coptocycla leprosa Boh.
Cordia alliodora (R. & P.) Oken
BOR
A
G10
30/V/1982
DHJ&WH
6
1
82-SRNP-145
Cordia alliodora
BOR
A
G13
16/VI/1989
DHJ&WH
6
3
89-SRNP-218
Cordia alliodora
BOR
L, A
G25
16/V/1979
DHJ&WH
6
4
79-SRNP-17
Coptocycla sordida Boh.
Alibertia edulis (L. Rich.) A. Rich.
RUB
A
G11
4/V/1980
DHJ&WH
6
8
80-SRNP-37
58
Cydista diversifolia (H.B.K.) Miers
BIG
A
G11
18/VI/1991
RWF
1
2
66-RWF91
Cydista diversifolia
BIG
L, A
G10
22/VI/1989
DHJ&WH
6
6
89-SRNP-296
Cydista diversifolia
BIG
L, A
G10
3/VI/1992
DHJ&WH
6
5
92-SRNP-1511
Cydista diversifolia
BIG
L, A
G10
19/V/1994
DHJ&WH
6
9
94-SRNP-3006
Tabebuia impetiginosa (Mart. ex DC.) Standl.
BIG
L, P
G25
16/V/1979
DHJ&WH
1
2
79-SRNP-16B
Dorynota aurita (Boh.)
Tabebuia impetiginosa
BIG
A
G3
9/VII/1991
RW & CA Flowers, LM, TA & K. I. Ketchem
4
27
90-RWF91
Tabebuia impetiginosa
BIG
L, A
G25
16/V/1979
DHJ&WH
6
1
79-SRNP-16
59
Ischnocodia annulis (Fab.)
Ocotea veraguensis
LAU
A
A
G10
5/XI/1979
8/I/1982
DHJ&WH
1
1
4
1
79-SRNP-311
82-SRNP-13
60
Omocerus caeruleopunctata (Boh.)
Cordia spinescens L.
BOR
A
C1
5/IX/1991
RWF, D. Coto, J. Saunders
4
7
47-RWF91
61
Orexita wagneri (Boh.)
Cordia panamensis Riley
BOR
A
L, A
G8
23/VI/1980
24/VI/1982
DHJ&WH
6
6
1
1
80-SRNP-218
82-SRNP-323
Cordia panamensis
BOR
A
L, A
G9
4/VII/1980
2/VII/1983
DHJ&WH
6
6
1
1
80-SRNP-309
83-SRNP-699
Bursera simaruba
BUR
A
G10
9/I/1982
DHJ&WH
1
4
82-SRNP-17
62
Physonota alutacea Boh.
Cordia 11890
BOR
A
G14
13/V/1980
DHJ&WH
6
1
80-SRNP-56
63

Cordia inermis L.
BOR
L, A
G5
11/VI/1991
RWF
6
1
100-RWF91
Cordia inermis
BOR
A
G11
14/V/1985
DHJ&WH
6
2
85-SRNP-185
Physonota nr. alutacea
Bourreria huanita Hemsl.
BOR
L
G19
4/VII/1983
DHJ&WH
6
24
83-SRNP-714
64
Plagiometriona crucipennis (Boh.)
Asteraceae
AST
A
G10
11/VII/1982
DHJ&WH
6
2
82-SRNP-545
Plagiometriona testudinaria (Boh.)
Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.
SOL
L, A
G14
30/VII/1986
DHJ&WH
6
7
86-SRNP-477
65
Xenocassis ambita (Champ.)
Ipomoea sp.
CNV
A
A1
21/V/1991
RWF
3
5
46-RWF91